Energy policy is in an "almighty mess" and should be overhauled with a range of potentially controversial measures, a think tank has suggested.
Options for Scotland, a group set up by former SNP leader Gordon Wilson, put forward nine ideas for how a post-independent Scotland might reform the energy industry.
Scaling back a carbon emissions target and a moratorium on new offshore wind power are among the suggestions published in an analysis paper.
Other ideas are the creation of a state-owned generating company, returning control of the grid to Scotland, investing in carbon capture and hydro power and abandoning the feed-in-tariff.
Scottish Government policy against new nuclear energy should be continued, the paper adds.
Report author Nick Dekker, a civil engineer, said: "Currently UK energy policy is an almighty mess. Mainly affecting England which could face major shortages of power at peak periods, the energy policies are at the mercy of the energy suppliers, the majority of which are foreign-owned.
"They look at energy as a milk cow for profits, whereas countries require longer-term approaches. By contrast, the over-generous London subsidy policy has led to a stampede for expensive wind energy far beyond Scotland's needs.
"We will end up with around 25,000MW from all sources, which will be five times our average daily maximum. And if we don't need these supplies and there is no market for this expensive power, Scottish consumers will have to pay for them."
He questioned the Scottish Government's target to meet current electricity demand with 100% renewable energy by 2020. This will "lock" Scotland into a British system operated by National Grid, he argued, adding that the moratorium on offshore wind should be put in place until the Government can reassess its policy with a view to having low-cost electricity as the priority.
Mr Wilson, director of Options for Scotland, said: "If an international market for green energy develops, especially from Scotland's vast potential for power from the marine resources of wave and tidal flow, then we can develop these but on one major condition: that the commercial benefits go to the Scottish state and thus to the Scottish taxpayers and consumers."