More than a million people in Scotland are not making any effort to save for the future, according to a report.
The Scottish Widows savings and investment report said 20% of its respondents have no savings at all, while 1.4 million people - a third of the country's adult population - are not currently putting anything away.
Of the 63% who are managing to save, more than a third (35%) have notched up less than £1,000. Scottish Widows said this amount "barely covers" the average combined monthly cost of mortgage and council tax payments (£870).
The investment company said the report shows a "bleak picture" of people's ability to cope with potential financial shocks in the future.
The report also found that 29% of respondents with families have loaned "a substantial amount" to their children, often to help them meet daily living expenses.
Support is also provided for higher education and property purchases, with parents giving an average loan of almost £14,000, the annual report said.
The majority of parents who answered (64%) opted to help their children get on the housing ladder, while 21% said they would prefer to contribute to university fees.
Over a fifth (21%) of those lending money have had to cut back on their own savings, while 6% said they have stopped putting any money away.
Scottish Widows said families are pulling together to support each other, as the report showed the average grandparents in Scotland have lent £700 to their grandchildren and 9% of people have lent an average £1,477 to a sibling.
More than a quarter (28%) of respondents said they have been forced to cut back on their savings by rising costs, and a further quarter are saving less than two years ago, mainly due to a lower level of disposable income. The majority (63%) said that having no money available is a barrier to saving.