An independent Scotland would go from having a foreign aid budget of £9 million, to a budget of hundreds of millions, according to the International Development Minister.
If a yes vote is returned in the 2014 referendum, an SNP administration would look to exceed UN spending targets on international aid, and is "actively considering" cancellation of third world debt, Humza Yousaf told a Sunday newspaper.
Scotland currently funds projects in several of the world's poorest countries including Malawi, Rwanda and Zambia.
It has committed £9 million to its international development budget for 2013/14.
Mr Yousaf, who was appointed as Minister for External Affairs and International Development in September last year, said this figure would increase greatly under independence.
"The aim should be, when independence comes, hopefully if it does come in 2014...that we would essentially go from having a budget as we have now of £9 million, modest, to a budget of hundreds of millions," he said.
"We want people to know that Scotland has a role to play in external affairs and foreign policy.
"It has a unique perspective. We are showing our political intent."
Mr Yousaf said the SNP would also seek to exceed UN targets for nations to dedicate 0.7% of their gross national income to overseas development.
"We've already passed a resolution at our last parliamentary conference to say that, not only will we ensure that we meet the 07% (UN spending target) but we'll look to go to 1%," he said.